RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) - GlobalRPH Energy Requirements (2024)

Determination of the Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)


RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) - GlobalRPH Energy Requirements (1)

Background

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
The Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) is closely related to the basal metabolic rate(BMR) and it is the amount of energy required to maintain the body's normalmetabolic activity, such as respiration, maintenance of body temperature(thermogenesis), and digestion. Specifically, it is the amount of energyrequired at rest with no additional activity. The energy consumed is sufficientonly for the functioning of the vital organs such as the heart, lungs, nervoussystem, kidneys, liver, intestine, sex organs, muscles, and skin.


Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR):

Age:Gender:


Height:

Weight
:

The activity level below will be used along with the RMR to calculate a
rough estimate of the number of calories needed per day (kcal/day)

Current daily activity level?

RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) - GlobalRPH Energy Requirements (2)

Sedentary. Little to noregular exercise.
(factor 1.2)

Mild activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 20 minutes 1 to 3 timesper week. This may include such things as bicycling, jogging, basketball,swimming, skating, etc. If you do not exercise regularly, but you maintaina busy life style that requires you to walk frequently for long periods, youmeet the requirements of this level.
(factor 1.375)

Moderate activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 30 to 60 minutes3 to 4 times per week. Any of the activities listed above will qualify.(factor 1.55)

Heavy or (Labor-intensive) activity level: Intensive exercise for 60minutes or greater 5 to 7 days per week (see sample activities above).Labor-intensive occupations also qualify for this level. Labor-intensiveoccupations include construction work (brick laying, carpentry, general labor,etc.). Also farming, landscape worker or similar occupations.(factor 1.7)

Extreme level: Exceedingly active and/or very demanding activities:Examples include: (1) athlete with an almost unstoppable trainingschedule with multiple training sessions throughout the day (2) very demanding job, such as shoveling coal or working longhours on an assembly line. Generally, this level of activity is very difficult to achieve.(factor 1.9)

Background


Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) equations:

(RMR) kcal/day:
(males) = 9.99 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) - 4.92 x age(years)+ 5;

(RMR) kcal/day:
(females) = 9.99 x weight(kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) - 4.92 x age(years) - 161.

Post-exercise energy expenditure: the amount of additionalenergy (above the resting or basal metabolic needs) expended after an activitydepends on the intensity and duration of the exercise session. More intensesessions tend to increase resting energy needs for longer time periods. Theseincreased energy requirements occur during the cool-down phase and areshort-lived. Sustained increases in the resting or basal metabolic rate can onlybe obtained through regular strength training routines that increase lean bodymass.

Summary:
Aerobic activity: short lived increases in RMR/BMR (cool-down period)
Anaerobic activity (regular): increases in lean body weight (LBW) --> Sustainedincreases in RMR/BMR.

Utilization


Utilization
: The baseline BMR or RMR can be used along withstress/activity factors to estimate the daily caloric needs of an individual - (Total EnergyExpenditure (TEE) (kcal/day)). See error rate below.

Total EnergyExpenditure (TEE)
The total energy expenditure (amount of calories needed per day) is composed ofthree primary factors: (1) Resting or basal metabolic rate (2) Thermic effect of food (3) Activities of daily living (ADL) - physicalactivity.

Thermic effect of food (TEF):
Rough estimation: TEF = Total calories consumed/day x 0.1
Example: 2000 kcal diet. TEF = 2000 x 0.1 = 200kcal/day.

TEF of protein >>carbohydrates>>fats.

Graphical representation:
RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) - GlobalRPH Energy Requirements (3)

Measurementversus predictive equations:

Direct measurement: Method: direct or indirect calorimetry.
BMR: Conditions: measured under very restrictive circ*mstancesand strict adherence to protocols. This method is generally impractical inmost cases.
RMR: less restrictive conditions and more easily obtained. Theresting metabolic rate is only marginally different from the BMR.

Predictive equations:
An alternative method is to use predictive equations that can provide a roughestimate of the basal or resting metabolic rate. The basal or theresting metabolism is the largest component of the total energy expenditure(TEE).... usually 60 - 75%. The RMR or BMR is usually at the higher end ofthis range for sedentary individuals (70-75%) and at lower the end for athletes.

Error rate ofpredictive equations:

The various predictive equations for determining the resting or basal metabolicrates may significantly under or overestimate the total calories needed tomaintain the current weight of an individual when combined with stress/activityfactors that are selected by the user. This variance can approach 20% (over orunderestimation) depending on differences in body composition (lean versusobese), actual activity levels (athletic versus sedentary lifestyle), andenergy levels expended in thermogenesis.

Activity /Stress factors:

The following activity/stress factors when used along with an estimation of theresting or basal metabolic rate can be used to estimate an individual's totalenergy expenditure (TEE) in kcal/day (recommend daily calories to maintaincurrent weight = RMR + TEF + ADL).

Sedentary. Little to noexerciseDaily calories needed =
RMR x 1.2
Mild activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 20 minutes 1 to 3 timesper week. This may include such things as bicycling, jogging, basketball,swimming, skating, etc. If you do not exercise regularly, but you maintaina busy life style that requires you to walk frequently for long periods, youmeet the requirements of this level.Daily calories needed =
RMR x 1.3 - 1.375
Moderate activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 30 to 60 minutes3 to 4 times per week. Any of the activities listed above will qualify. Daily calories needed =
RMR x 1.5 - 1.55
Heavy or (Labor-intensive) activity level: Intensive exercise for 60minutes or greater 5 to 7 days per week (see sample activities above).Labor-intensive occupations also qualify for this level. Labor-intensiveoccupations include construction work (bricklaying, carpentry, general labor,etc.). Also farming, landscape worker or similar occupations. Daily calories needed =
RMR x 1.7
Extreme level: Exceedingly activeand/or very demanding activities:Examples include: athlete with an almost unstoppable trainingschedule with multiple training sessions throughout the day or a very demanding job, such as shoveling coal or working longhours on an assembly line. Generally, this level of activity is very difficult to achieve.Daily calories needed =
RMR x 1.9

References

Mifflin, MD; St Jeor, ST; Hill, LA; Scott, BJ; Daugherty, SA; Koh, YO (1990). "Anew predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals".The American journal of clinical nutrition 51 (2): 241-7.

Comments:
Frankenfield, David; Roth-Yousey, Lori; Compher, Charlene (2005). "Comparison ofPredictive Equations for Resting Metabolic Rate in Healthy Nonobese and ObeseAdults: A Systematic Review". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105(5): 775:89. Link.

"An assessment of energy needs is a necessary component in the development andevaluation of a nutrition care plan. The metabolic rate can be measured orestimated by equations, but estimation is by far the more common method.However, predictive equations might generate errors large enough to impactoutcome."

"CONCLUSIONS: The Mifflin-St Jeor equation is more likely than the otherequations tested to estimate RMR to within 10% of that measured, but noteworthyerrors and limitations exist when it is applied to individuals and possibly whenit is generalized to certain age and ethnic groups. RMR estimation errors wouldbe eliminated by valid measurement of RMR with indirect calorimetry, using anevidence-based protocol to minimize measurement error. The Expert Panel advisesclinical judgment regarding when to accept estimated RMR using predictiveequations in any given individual. "

"For members of groups that are greatly underrepresented by existing validationstudies of predictive equations, a high level of suspicion regarding theaccuracy of the equations is warranted."

RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) - GlobalRPH Energy Requirements (2024)

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